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2007-06-15

Bhagavat Gita Chaper 2  

Chapter 2


Contents of the Gita summarized

Verse 1-4

Sanjaya Uvaacha

Tam tatha krpayaavishtam
Ashru-purnakulekshanam
Vishidantam idam vakyam
Uvaacha madhusudhanah


Sanjaya said: Seeing Arjuna full of compassion , his mind depressed,his eyes full of tears, Madhusudana, Krishna, spoke the following words.

Sri- Bhagavan uvaacha

Kutas tva kashmalam idam
Vishame samupasthitam
Anaarya jushtam asvargyam
Akirti-karam arjuna

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna,how have these impurities come upon you?

They are not at all befitting a man who knows the value of life.They lead not to higher planets but to infamy.

Klaibyam ma sma gamah partha
Naitat tvayy upapadyate
Kshudram hrdaya-daurbalyam
Tyaktvottishta parantapa


O son of Prtha, do not yield to this degrading impotence. It does not become you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise, O chastiser of the enemy

Arjuna Uvaacha

Katham bhismam aham sankhye
Dronam cha madhusudana
Ishubhih pratiyotsyami
Pujarhav ari-sudana


Arjuna said: O killer of enemies, O killer of Madhu, how can I counterattack with arrows in battle men like Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship

Verese 5-8

Gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan
Sreyo bhoktum bhaiksyam apiha loke
Hatvartha-kamams tu gurun ihaiva
Bhunjiya bhogan rudhira-pradigdhan


It would be better to live in this world by begging than to live at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though desiring worldly gain, they are superiors. If they are killed, everything we enjoy will be tainted with blood.

Na caitad vidmah kataran no gariyo
Yad va jayema yadi va no jayeyuh
Yan eva hatva na jijivisamas
Te 'vasthitah pramukhe dhartarashtrah

Nor do we know which is better--conquering them or being conquered by them. If we killed the sons of Dhrtarastra, we should not care to live. Yet they are now standing before us on the battlefield.

Karpanya-doshopahata-svabhavah
Prcchami tvam dharma-sammudha-cetah
Yac chreyah syan nischitam bruhi tanme
Shishyas te 'ham sadhi mam tvam prapannam


Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of miserly weakness. In this condition I am asking You to tell me for certain what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. Please instruct me.

Na hi prapashyami mamapanudyad
Yac chokam ucchoshanam indriyanam
Avapya bhumav asapatnam rddham
Rajyam suranam api chadhipatyam


I can find no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to dispel it even if I win a prosperous, unrivaled kingdom on earth with sovereignty like the demigods in heaven.

Verse 9-12

Sanjaya Uvaacha

Evam uktva hrsikesam
Gudakesah parantapah
Na yotsya iti govindam
Uktva tushnim babhuva ha


Sanjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, chastiser of enemies, told Krsna, "Govinda, I shall not fight," and fell silent.

Tam uvaacha hrsikesah
Prahasann iva bharata
Senayor ubhayor madhye
Vishidantam idam vachah


O descendant of Bharata, at that time Krsna, smiling, in the midst of both the armies, spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna.

Sri-bhagavan Uvaacha

Asochyan anvasochas tvam
Prajna-vadams ca bhashase
Gatasun agatasums ca
Nanushochanti panditah

The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for what is not worthy of grief. Those who are wise lament neither for the living nor for the dead.

Na tv evaham jatu nasam
Na tvam neme janadhipah
Na chaiva na bhavisyamah
Sarve vayam atah param

Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.

Verse 13-16

Dehino 'smin yatha dehe
Kaumaram yauvanam jara
Tatha dehantara-praptir
Dhiras tatra na muhyati


As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.

Matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
Sitoshna-sukha-duhkha-dah
Agamapayino 'nityas
Tams titikshasva bharata


O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.

Yam hi na vyathayanty ete
Purusam purusarsabha
Sama-duhkha-sukham dhiram
So 'mrtatvaya kalpate

O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.

Nasato vidyate bhavo
Nabhavo vidyate satah
Ubhayor api drsto 'ntas
Tv anayos tattva-darsibhih


Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent [the material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have concluded by studying the nature of both.

Verse 17-20

Avinasi tu tad viddhi
Yena sarvam idam tatam
Vinasam avyayasyasya
Na kascit kartum arhati

That which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible. No one is able to destroy that imperishable soul.

Antavanta ime deha
Nityasyoktah saririnah
Anasino prameyasya
Tasmad yudhyasva bharata


The material body of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity is sure to come to an end; therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata.

Ya enam vetti hantaram
Yas cainam manyate hatam
Ubhau tau na vijanito
Nayam hanti na hanyate

Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer nor he who thinks it slain is in knowledge, for the self slays not nor is slain.

Na jayate mriyate va kadacin
Nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah
Ajo nityah sasvato 'yam purano
Na hanyate hanyamane sarire


For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.

Verse 21-24

Vedavinasinam nityam
Ya enam ajam avyayam
Katham sa purusah partha
Kam ghatayati hanti kam

O Partha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?

Vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaaya
Navani grhnati naro 'parani
Tatha sarirani vihaaya jirnany
Anyani samyati navani dehi


As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

Nainam chindanti sastrani
Nainam dahati pavakah
Na cainam kledayanty apo
Na sosayati marutah


The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.

Acchedyo 'yam adahyo 'yam
Akledyo 'sosya eva ca
Nityah sarva-gatah sthanur
Acalo 'yam sanatanah

This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.

Verse 25-28

Avyakto 'yam acintyo 'yam
Avikaryo 'yam ucyate
Tasmad evam viditvainam
Nanusocitum arhasi

It is said that the soul is invisible, inconceivable and immutable. Knowing this, you should not grieve for the body.

Atha cainam nitya-jatam
Nityam va manyase mrtam
Tathapi tvam maha-baho
Nainam socitum arhasi


If, however, you think that the soul [or the symptoms of life] is always born and dies forever, you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.

Jatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur
Dhruvam janma mrtasya ca
Tasmad apariharye 'rthe
Na tvam socitum arhasi

One who has taken his birth is sure to die, and after death one is sure to take birth again. Therefore, in the unavoidable discharge of your duty, you should not lament.

Avyaktadini bhutani
Vyakta-madhyani bharata
Avyakta-nidhanany eva
Tatra ka paridevana


All created beings are unmanifest in their beginning, manifest in their interim state, and unmanifest again when annihilated. So what need is there for lamentation?

Verse 29-32

Ascarya-vat pasyati kascid enam
Ascarya-vad vadati tathaiva canyah.
Ascarya-vac cainam anyah srnoti
Srutvapy enam veda na caiva kascit

Some look on the soul as amazing, some describe him as amazing, and some hear of him as amazing, while others, even after hearing about him, cannot understand him at all.

Dehi nityam avadhyo 'yam
Dehe sarvasya bharata
Tasmat sarvani bhutani
Na tvam socitum arhasi

O descendant of Bharata, he who dwells in the body can never be slain. Therefore you need not grieve for any living being

Sva-dharmam api caveksya
Na vikampitum arhasi
Dharmyad dhi yuddhac chreyo 'nyat
Ksatriyasya na vidyate


Considering your specific duty as a ksatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you than fighting on religious principles; and so there is no need for hesitation.

Yadrcchaya copapannam
Svarga-dvaram apavrtam
Sukhinah ksatriyah partha
Labhante yuddham idrsam


O Partha, happy are the ksatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.

Verse 33-36

Atha cet tvam imam dharmyam
Sangramam na karisyasi
Tatah sva-dharmam kirtim ca
Hitva papam avapsyasi

If, however, you do not perform your religious duty of fighting, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a fighter.


Akirtim capi bhutani
Kathayisyanti te 'vyayam
Sambhavitasya cakirtir
Maranad atiricyate


People will always speak of your infamy, and for a respectable person, dishonor is worse than death

Bhayad ranad uparatam
Mamsyante tvam maha-rathah
Yesam ca tvam bahu-mato
Bhutva yasyasi laghavam

The great generals who have highly esteemed your name and fame will think that you have left the battlefield out of fear only, and thus they will consider you insignificant.

Avacya-vadams ca bahun
Vadisyanti tavahitah
Nindantas tava samarthyam
Tato duhkhataram nu kim

Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you?

Verse 37-40

Hato va prapsyasi svargam
Jitva va bhoksyase mahim
Tasmad uttistha kaunteya
Yuddhaya krta-niscayah

O son of Kunti, either you will be killed on the battlefield and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore, get up with determination and fight.

Sukha-duhkhe same krtva
Labhalabhau jayajayau
Tato yuddhaya yujyasva
Naivam papam avapsyasi

You should fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat--and by so doing you shall never incur sin.

Esa te 'bhihita sankhye
Buddhir yoge tv imam srnu
Buddhya yukto yaya partha
Karma-bandham prahasyasi


Thus far I have described this knowledge to you through analytical study. Now listen as I explain it in terms of working without fruitive results. O son of Prtha, when you act in such knowledge you can free yourself from the bondage of works.

Nehabhikrama-naso 'sti
Pratyavayo na vidyate
Sv-alpam apy asya dharmasya
Trayate mahato bhayat

In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.

Verse 41-44

Vyavasayatmika buddhir
Ekeha kuru-nandana
Bahu-sakha hy anantas ca
Buddhayo 'vyavasayinam

Those who are on this path are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched.

Yam imam puspitam vacam
Pravadanty avipascitah
Veda-vada-ratah partha
Nanyad astiti vadinah


Kamatmanah svarga-para
Janma-karma-phala-pradam
Kriya-visesa-bahulam
Bhogaisvarya-gatim prati

Men of small knowledge are very much attached to the flowery words of the Vedas, which recommend various fruitive activities for elevation to heavenly planets, resultant good birth, power, and so forth. Being desirous of sense gratification and opulent life, they say that there is nothing more than this.

Bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam
Ta yapahrta-cetasam
Vyavasayatmika buddhih
Samadhau na vidhiyate

In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence, and who are bewildered by such things, the resolute determination for devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place.

Verse 45-48

Trai-gunya-visaya veda
Nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna
Nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho
Niryoga-ksema atmavan


The Vedas deal mainly with the subject of the three modes of material nature. O Arjuna, become transcendental to these three modes. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the self.

Yavan artha udapane
Sarvatah samplutodake
Tavan sarvesu vedesu
Brahmanasya vijanatah


All purposes served by a small well can at once be served by a great reservoir of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them.

Karmany evadhikaras te
Ma phalesu kadacana
Ma karma-phala-hetur bhur
Ma te sango 'stv akarmani

You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty.

Yoga-sthah kuru karmani
Sangam tyaktva dhananjaya
Siddhy-asiddhyoh samo bhutva
Samatvam yoga ucyate

Perform your duty equipoised, O Arjuna, abandoning all attachment to success or failure. Such equanimity is called yoga.

Verse 49-52

Durena hy avaram karma
Buddhi-yogad dhananjaya
Buddhau saranam anviccha
Krpanah phala-hetavah


O Dhananjaya, keep all abominable activities far distant by devotional service, and in that consciousness surrender unto the Lord. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their work are misers.

Buddhi-yukto jahatiha
Ubhe sukrta-duskrte
Tasmad yogaya yujyasva
Yogah karmasu kausalam


A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad actions even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga, which is the art of all work.

Karma-jam buddhi-yukta hi
Phalam tyaktva manisinah
Janma-bandha-vinirmuktah
Padam gacchanty anamayam


By thus engaging in devotional service to the Lord, great sages or devotees free themselves from the results of work in the material world. In this way they become free from the cycle of birth and death and attain the state beyond all miseries [by going back to Godhead].

Yada te moha-kalilam
Buddhir vyatitarisyati
Tada gantasi nirvedam
Srotavyasya srutasya ca

When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard.

Verse 53-56

Sruti-vipratipanna te
Yada sthasyati niscala
Samadhav acala buddhis
Tada yogam avapsyasi

When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the divine consciousness.

Arjuna Uvaacha

Sthita-prajnasya ka bhasa
Samadhi-sthasya kesava
Sthita-dhih kim prabhaseta
Kim asita vrajeta kim


Arjuna said: O Krsna, what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?

Sri-bhagavan Uvaacha

Prajahati yada kaman
Sarvan partha mano-gatan
Atmany evatmana tustah.
Sthita-prajnas tadocyate


The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Partha, when a man gives up all varieties of desire for sense gratification, which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind, thus purified, finds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.

Duhkhesv anudvigna-manah
Sukhesu vigata-sprhah
Vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah
Sthita-dhir munir ucyate

One who is not disturbed in mind even amidst the threefold miseries or elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.

Verse 57-60

Yah sarvatranabhisnehas
Tat tat prapya subhasubham
Nabhinandati na dvesti
Tasya prajna pratisthita

In the material world, one who is unaffected by whatever good or evil he may obtain, neither praising it nor despising it, is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge.

Yada samharate cayam
Kurmo 'nganiva sarvasah
Indriyanindriyarthebhyas
Tasya prajna pratisthita

One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is firmly fixed in perfect consciousness.

Visaya vinivartante
Niraharasya dehinah
Rasa-varjam raso 'py asya
Param drstva nivartate


The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is fixed in consciousness.

Yatato hy api kaunteya
Purusasya vipascitah
Indriyani pramathini
Haranti prasabham manah

The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination who is endeavoring to control them.

Verse 61-64

Tani sarvani samyamya
Yukta asita mat-parah
Vase hi yasyendriyani
Tasya prajna pratisthita


One who restrains his senses, keeping them under full control, and fixes his consciousness upon Me, is known as a man of steady intelligence

Dhyayato visayan pumsah
Sangas tesupajayate
Sangat sanjayate kamah
Kamat krodho 'bhijayate

While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.

Krodhad bhavati sammohah
Sammohat smrti-vibhramah
Smrti-bhramsad buddhi-naso
Buddhi-nasat pranasyati

From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.

Raga-dvesa-vimuktais tu
Visayan indriyais caran
Atma-vasyair vidheyatma
Prasadam adhigacchati

But a person free from all attachment and aversion and able to control his senses through regulative principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord.

Verse 65-68

Prasade sarva-duhkhanam
Hanir asyopajayate
Prasanna-cetaso hy asu
Buddhih paryavatisthate

For one thus satisfied [in Krsna consciousness], the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such satisfied consciousness, one's intelligence is soon well established.

Nasti buddhir ayuktasya
Na cayuktasya bhavana
Na cabhavayatah santir
Asantasya kutah sukham

One who is not connected with the Supreme [in Krishna consciousness] can have neither transcendental intelligence nor a steady mind, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can there be any happiness without peace?

Indriyanam hi caratam
Yan mano 'nuvidhiyate
Tad asya harati prajnam
Vayur navam ivambhasi

As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the roaming senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man's intelligence.

Tasmad yasya maha-baho
Nigrhitani sarvasah
Indriyanindriyarthebhyas
Tasya prajna pratisthita

Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence.

Verse 69-72

Ya nisha sarva-bhutanam
Tasyam jagrati samyami
Yasyam jagrati bhutani
Sa nisha pasyato muneh

What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.

Apuryamanam acala-pratistham
Samudram apah pravisanti yadvat
Tadvat kama yam pravisanti sarve
Sa santim apnoti na kama-kami

A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires--that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being filled but is always still--can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.

Vihaya kaman yah sarvan
Pumams carati nihsprhah
Nirmamo nirahankarah
Sa santim adhigacchati

A person who has given up all desires for sense gratification, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego--he alone can attain real peace.

Esa brahmi sthitih partha
Nainam prapya vimuhyati
Sthitvasyam anta-kale 'pi
Brahma-nirvanam rcchati

That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.

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